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面对被动语态不被动
  英语动词语态主要分为两种:即主动语态和被动语态。主动语态强调主语是谓语动作的执行者, 二者为主动关系。被动语态强调主语是谓语动作的承受者, 二者为被动关系。如:I have done the job.(主动关系) The job has been done. (被动关系)
  一、被动语态的构成:
  被动语态由助动词be加及物动词的过去分词构成。被动语态可以用于各种时态, 高考主要考查以下八种:
  1.一般现在时的被动语态:am/is/are+过去分词。例如:
  The song is often sung by children.
  2.一般过去时的被动语态:was/were+过去分词。例如:
  The house was built in 2000.
  3.一般将来时的被动语态:will/shall be+过去分词。例如:
  Cars will be taken by railway to many parts of the country.
  4.过去将来时的被动语态:would/should+be+过去分词。例如:
  Mr Li said that he would be invited to visit America before long.
  5.现在进行时的被动语态:am/is/are+being+过去分词。例如:
  The case is being investigated.
  6.过去进行时的被动语态:was/were+being+过去分词。例如:
  Mr Li was in hospital. When we went to see him, he was being operated on.
  7.完成时的被动语态:have/has/had+been+过去分词。例如:
  ①The letters have been posted.
  ②He told me that the work had been finished.
  8.带情态动词的被动语态:情态动词+be+过去分词。例如:
  ①Nothing can be done about this.
  ②He should be praised by the teacher.
  9.被动语态除常用be+过去分词外, 还可用get+过去分词。这种结构多用在口语中, 高考常考。例如:
  ①Hundreds of people get killed every year by traffic.
  ②The boy got hurt on his way to school.
  二、用被动语态时的意义:
  1.不知道或无必要指出行为、动作的执行者(无须加by短语)。如:
  ①Football is played all over the world.
  ②Color TV sets are sold in that shop.
  2.突出和强调行为或动作的承受者时。如:
  ①History is made by the people.
  ②The wounded soldiers have been saved by those people.
  3.有时主语较长, 宜后置。如:Its said that they have won the game.
  三、使用动词被动语态时应注意的事项:
  1.短语动词的被动语态要注意不可丢失其附加的介词、副词或短语。如:look at, laugh at, send for, call on, carry out, take care of等。 例如:
  ①The data is often referred to.
  ②My sister is taken care of by Grandma.
  2.不及物动词没有被动语态。如:appear, belong, remain, happen, occur, escape, break out等。例如:
  ①The Anti-Japanese War was broken out in 1937. (错误)
  The Anti-Japanese War broke out in 1937. (正确)
  ②At last, my dream was come true. (错误)
  At last, my dream come true. (正确)
  3.连系动词用主动形式表达被动的含义。 如:
  ①表示感官的连系动词, 如:smell, taste, sound, feel, look, seem等, 这类动词只能用主动形式表达被动的含义。如: Mr Li looks quite young. 又如:His health seems to be better.
  ②表示持续状态的动词, 如stay, remain等,也不用于被动语态, 它们的被动意义也要用主动的形式来表达。如:
  Much work remains to be done. 又如:The window stayed open all the night.
  ③prove, turn out作连系动词, 表"结果,证明"。例如:
  This meeting proved/turned out to be a success.
  这次会议证明是一次成功的会议。
  4.说明商品,产品或工具自身所具有的性能或内在属性的动词, 如sell(well/badly); wash(well/badly); write(well/badly); cut(well/badly)等, 这类动词不用于被动语态(不表达此意时, 则另当别论)。如:
  ①The book sells well. 这本书卖得很好。
  ②This knife cuts well. 这把刀切起来很锋利。
  5.need, want, require以及be worth…之后的V-ing不用被动语态, 要用主动的形式表达被动的含义。如:
  ①This book is well worth reading.
  ②The flower needs watering.
  6.动词不定式的被动语态要注意的问题。
  (1)动词不定式与被修饰的名词构成动宾关系, 又和句子的主语构成主谓关系;在"主语+be+形容词(如hard, easy, difficult, good, impossible, important等)+不定式"句型中,当主语是不定式的逻辑宾语时,不定式用主动形式表达被动意义。如:
  ①I have an important meeting to attend.
  ②The math problem is hard to work out.
  (2)There be句型中,通常用不定式的主动形式表达被动的意义。如:
  There is lots of difficulty to face in the future.
  (3)有些动词不定式的被动意义用主动形式表达是固定用法,如:to blame(应受谴责); to let(出租)等。如:
  In this matter he seems to be in no way to blame.
  在这件事情上, 看来他没有什么责任。
  7.一词多义的动词在用作某一特定的词义时是不及物的, 不能用于被动语态; 反之则可以用于被动语态, 应视具体情况而定。如decline做及物动词时, 意为"拒绝; 谢绝"。如:The invation of the TV was declined by the famous singer. decline作不及物动词时, 意为"衰退; 减弱; (物价等)下跌"。如:The prices are declining.
  8.有些动词形式上是被动的, 但含义上是主动的。例如:
  ①He was dressed in red at that time.
  ②The girl was lost in the forest.
  ③The boy was seated in the chair.
  9.在使役动词make以及感官动词see, hear…等动词被动形式后面出现的作主语补足语的不定式须加不定式符号"to"。 如:
  The teacher made Jim answer it again.(主动)
  Jim was made to answer it again. (被动语态, 加to)
  10.宾语为反身代词时,不用被动语态,只用主动形式,如:
  The man introduces himself as Mr Li.
  11..注意系表结构和被动语态的区别。系表结构表明主语的状态或特征,不带by短语,而被动语态是表明主语的一个被动动作,可以带by短语。
  The job was well done. (系表结构)
  The job was well done by a skilled worker. (被动语态)
  巩固练习:选择最佳答案。
  1. They consider the question hard ____.
  A. to be answered	B. to being answered
  C. to answer D. answer
  2. ____ this bicycle ____ to you?
  A. Does; belong B. Is; belong
  C. Has; been belonged	D. Is; belonging
  3. His idea, though good, needs ____ out.
  A. being tried	B. to try	C. tried	D. trying
  4. ——Do you like the material?
  ——Yes, it ____ very soft.
  A. is feeling	B. felt	C. feels	D. is felt
  5. ——Shall we begin now?
  ——Yes. All the preparations for the task ____, and you may start.
  A. completed B. have been completed
  C. had been completed	D. complete
  6. ——You could have asked your brother for help. He is good at math.
  ——Yes, a whole day ____.
  A. will waste B. had wasted
  C. was wasted D. would be wasted
  7. Nothing ____ after the terrible fire which had been caused by
  someone smoking in bed.
  A. left	B. was remained	C. remained	D. continued
  8. The new dictionaries are very useful. They ____ well and ____
  already.
  A. sell; have been sold out	B. sold; had sold
  C. sell; sell out D. are sold; have been sold out
  9. Why havent you finished your homework yet? You ____ to have
  finished it last Sunday.
  A. are supposed	B. were supposed	C. are supposing	D. were supposing
  10. Our team won the match, but one of the players ____ hurt in the match.
  A. got	B. gets	C. are	D. were
  Key(3)
 
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